Tires, the first part
Architecture diagonal and radial
The radial architecture is composed of a trained textile carcass ply arches that will rod in rod. Each pole makes an angle of 90 with the rolling direction of the tire. At the top of the tire, the carcass ply is surmounted by a crown belt constituted of several layers of armed wire cables. These plies are superimposed and crossed them according angles adapted to each type of tire. The stacking of the layers at the top and on the sides is different to better specialize the work of each part of the tire. Regarding the diagonal tire, several textile webs are ASKED obliquely rod has rod alternately in one direction and then in another. The number of layers depends on the tire size and load scope. The stack of webs is the same at the top and in the tire sidewalls.
By analyzing the origin of the energy losses of the tire that Michelin has developed the assembly of metal layers in radial position. He makes an experimental tire called "cage fly", or the tread was independent flanks. The tread had crossed metal layers while the flanks were compounds of cables far between radial position. Michelin then perceived that the majority of the loss was due to the heating of the sidewalls. By avoiding a mounting cross plies, sidewalls are more flexible and absorb less energy.
As regards the carcass, there are two types: a metal structure and a textile structure. The choice of one or the other will depend on the research result. The carcass metal structure will be more resistant and heat up less, so it will be more rigid; and he will answer more quickly to maneuvers a driver. The carcass textile structure is softer, so it will answer less abruptly to the demands of management, and for the same stiffness, it will be heavier than the other guy and has the drawback to deform more easily; against by, it will work out more pupil regarding the belt.
Natural rubber does not, in all weather conditions, to have a constant adherence. The sculptures are used to dry up the floor under the tread so that it can touch the ground and find tacking. A few thousandths of a second, collecting water sculpture in the channels and throws out of the contact zone.
Valves, TPMS and nitrogen
Three types of valves are being used around the world. A valve is absolutely necessary to allow to inflate or deflate the tire to give it the proper pressure. We thus find on almost all cars, Schrader-type valves. This valve, invented in 1891 by August Schrader, is a kind of small threaded tube which takes place in a small piston spring. Pressing the center bushing to air out the tire and then the releasing the pressure of air inside the tire comes close the piston. It is this type of valve is widely used for car tires. Quite recently, has added a mini transmitter battery, integrated with the piston to constantly measure the tire pressure. Called TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System), it measures the air pressure of each tire and then forwards the information via radio waves using the power that it receives a tiny battery. In addition to the information given precise driver on the state of the tires, the system is often more expensive to purchase and causes more care and maintenance costs in the vehicle, especially when changing the tires fall and spring. The system is also fragile and easily damaged, which often leads owners of cars to go to the dealer for servicing at the wheels. The other type of valve, Presta is hardly used automobile. However, it is well presented on bikes, especially those with thin wheels. This valve has the advantage of presenting a smaller diameter and the Shrader bit so be used to confined spaces such as bicycle racing and mountain bike wheels. In presenting a smaller diameter, this valve limits the diameter of the hole in the rim and therefore offer greater resistance to blows. The Presta valve does not require the plastic cap as the piston is divided into two sections, one inside and one outside to be unscrewed in order to inflate the tire.
When it comes to regularize the tire pressure of our car, we went mostly to the local garage to insert them a few PSI. We then use normal air, compresses and mechanically by a manometer gauge. It usually check tire pressure weekly and adjust accordingly so as not to end up with tires under or over inflated. In both cases, premature wear of the tire tread thus follows that a greater consumption of gasoline. But just recently arrived a new product on the market, nitrogen. Replacing air, nitrogen overcomes some problems occasioned by the air. We note the tires inflated with nitrogen by small caps montes green plastic valves and replacing the traditional black caps. Nitrogen has the property not to be influenced by differences in temperature, so the tire remains inflated to the same pressure both winter and summer. However, do not add compressed air to nitrogen when a tire is deflated, which completely negate the main quality nitrogen. A tire inflated with nitrogen must be absolutely inflated with nitrogen, often only available at the dealership and has a cost.
Hard or soft?
An over-inflated tire, and a tire inflating sub-causes a decrease in adhesion which can be dangerous when cornering or braking. It is therefore advisable to check the tire pressure regularly. It is also advisable to slightly inflate the tires in case we would carry heavy loads to avoid the tire bends on edges. A sub-inflated tire undergoes greater deformation of the sidewalls and tread. The main consequences are faster tire wear, increases risk of bursting and an increase in fuel consumption of the vehicle. It should be noted that a tire inflate too quickly also use the center of the tread and is more sensitive to stripping gum (including skating).
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